In recent Past even a new born baby would have heard about spectrum and it was a biggest topic all around especially in media’s, but most of us don’t know what it is actually. When we speak about Wireless it definitely does not get fulfilled without knowing about Spectrum. So let’s not enter in to the rear part and let’s tune up our mind for knowing something about telecom spectrum.
Everyone would have come across the word spectrum in our schooling when we saw seven colors being produced when a white light hits a glass prism. After those days we would have heard about spectrum but not the one which we are going to discuss about.
Spectrum is nothing but a range of radio- waves that are used for communication purposes, When we say radio waves it is again explained as the invisible waves surrounded in air. This includes the FM or AM broadcasts that we used to listen (98.3fm, 108.3fm etc) and even other wireless forms of communication like Wi-fi, Bluetooth. Even a smartphones uses the same radio waves to transmit
Signals (both voice & Data). The main and one characteristic we need to know about spectrum is Frequency , so as referred earlier spectrum can be referred as waves which is around us at all times, thus enabling our mobile phone to catch up the signal, here we need to understand about the bands, licensed and unlicensed frequencies
According to the above statement when air waves has the possibility to pass through everything and if anyone could broadcast signals at any frequency then ultimately this will create chaos leading to lot of interference . In order to overcome and control this government has divided the spectrum in to bands.
- AM and FM channels are spread around 100MHZ-200MHZ
- Telecom Spectrum starts from 800MHZ and extends up to 2300MHZ
- Post above we start getting unlicensed bands used for Wimax, Wi-fi, Bluetooth starting with 2.4GHZ (2400MHZ) and has started to shift to 5GHZ(5000MHZ) band
- Mobile communication commonly uses 800MHZ, 900MHZ, 1800MHZ, 2100MHZ, 2300MHZ
- Most suitable spectrum for telecommunication is in the range of 400MHZ to 4GHZ range
Over time to use these bands, different standards such as GSM, WCDMA and LTE were developed creating an ecosystem of technology that operators (Telecom giants) can deploy. Each country using this regulates the use of spectrum in its own territory but the same technology finds use around the world, through how we have roaming services indefinitely, Where ever we go, the telecom operators makes the network to follow us.
When we have different sets of spectrum we of course need operator with Licenses for a complete regulation and hence companies would be granted their license and they would also be allocated with frequencies for a fixed number of years after which they would have to bid to renew the same.
So when we talk of Licensing, here come the spectrum auctions. Spectrum is also supposed to be auctioned by the government to companies that can then use this to offer a number of services. With this auction the company that holds the designated frequency will share their network for other providers by which even though you get fixed to a single service provider you will be able to get connected when roaming across.
2g, 3g, 4g – Refers to the Next Generation of Technology , 2g is the oldest obviously launched in India over 900MHZ and later to 1800MHZ which is also being used in 4g. 3g runs on both 900 and 2100MHz in India, The higher the frequency, the more the energy is required for the wave. This is actually true not only for telecom spectrum but for any kind of spectrum.
Hopefully you would have gained knowledge on spectrum, the more you know the more you share for others to increase their knowledge.